Americani per sempre - Annie Cohen-Solal - Johan & Levi - Libro Johan & Levi Editore
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Americani per sempre

I pittori di un mondo nuovo: Parigi 1867 - New York 1948

Paris, 1 July 1867, the inauguration of the Universal Exposition. With the end of the American Civil War, the landscape painters, members of the first authentic American school, returned to Europe convinced that they deserved praise, prizes and medals. Rather than acclaim, however, it was bitter humiliation that awaited them. The French critics shattered their dreams of glory with cruel, sarcastic comments on the large canvases crammed with majestic waterfalls, age-old trees and boundless horizons, pouring scorn on the best that a nation eager to assert itself in the arts as in the economic field had to offer. The American exhibition, said the French, “is unworthy of the sons of Washington … young and crude, in the midst of our old cultures it gives the impression of a giant lost in a dancehall”.

The unexpected humiliation led first of all to self-examination and criticism. Why was the land of Melville and Poe unable to produce painters with the expressive power of its greatest writers? What should the painters of a young nation do to earn the respect of the Old World? Was it possible to bridge the abyss between them and European art? For the time being there was no choice. They were forced to bow to the tastes of the French, the undisputed arbiters of world painting. In actual fact, the Parisian failure of 1867 became a stimulus that prompted the “sons of Washington” to transform the defeat suffered into a challenge. American painters set off for France in their hundreds and settled in Paris, where they attend the course of masters like Gérôme and Cabanel. They then founded new “colonies” of artists, like the legendary one at Pont-Aven in Brittany. The success of the greatest amongst them, including Whistler, Sargent and Cassatt, paved the way for a host of others. Backed at home by the colossal resources of philanthropists and patrons of the arts as well as extraordinary museums such as the MoMA in New York, they succeeded in surpassing Paris in the space of two generations and making America the new home of art, the pulsating centre of world painting that was also to attract renowned French artists. The epic tale of American painters recounted by Cohen-Solal moves from Paris to New York, Giverny to Chicago and Pont-Aven to Taos. The turning point came with the 1948 Venice Biennial and the first-ever exhibition in Europe of eight canvases by a largely unknown artist, namely Jackson Pollock, soon to be acclaimed all over the world as the first absolute master of American painting.


Indice testuale

Parte prima
Gli Argonauti e il Vello d’oro. 1855-1900
Prologo. Parigi, 1867: un gigante sperduto in una sala da ballo
1. Un paese senza cattedrali
2. Una generazione di pionieri
3. Il magnifico spettro del genio
4. “I greci del nostro tempo”
5. Pont-Aven, colonia americana
6. Risse, fracasso, schiamazzi
7. Maestri e discepoli: Rembrandt, Rubens, Gérôme
8. New York, “l’avvenimento culturale dell’anno”
9. Con o senza pungiglione: Whistler, la farfalla
10. Due americani “cosmopoliti e colti”
11. Onorificenze, medaglie, menzioni onorevoli
12. Il successo: una nuova scuola “maturata qui da noi”

Parte seconda
Il ritorno dei figlioli prodighi. 1870-1913
1. Un complotto segreto ai danni di Thomas Eakins
2. “Renderemo fertile il terreno degli Stati Uniti…”
3. La “banda Monet”
4. Chicago, 1893
5. La nuova moda americana delle collezioni
6. Dalla “scuola dell’ombra azzurra” al Gruppo dei Dieci
7. La rivincita di Thomas Eakins
8. “Come Take a Ride Underground”
9. La scuola della spazzatura contro l’Accademia
10. Entrano in scena i fotografi
11. Viaggio nel paese dei fauves
12. I modernisti sull’oceano

Parte terza
Da Notre-Dame al ponte di Brooklyn. 1913-1948
1. “Guai a chi muore ricco” ovvero Filantropi per tutti i gusti
2. “Un vento glaciale da Est spirò sui nostri artisti”
3. “Santa Fé è la nostra speranza”
4. 1915: New York capitale mondiale dell’arte
5. “Mecenate”: genere femminile, numero plurale
6. Il “primo museo d’arte moderna del mondo”
7. “Senza quel dannato sapore francese”: il modernismo degli Stati Uniti
8. “Attenzione! Lavori in corso”
9. Le Demoiselles vanno in America
10. “La febbre del West”: gli europei nel Nuovo Mondo

Finale. La danza eroica di Jackson Pollock

Epilogo. New Mexico, 1998: viaggio a Taos

Nota dell’autore

Americani per sempre

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